Over 100 academic level articles written by the staff of TorahResource are available here, free to read and download. These comprehensive commentaries are in-depth and very thorough studies on a variety of Biblical and theological topics all of which are relevant to the greater “Messianic Movement”.

Tim Hegg looks at the 9th of Av, which has traditionally been filled with woe for the nation of Israel. It is traditional to fast and pray on this day every year. It is also traditional to read the book of Lamentations. Hegg emphasizes that though the book of Lamentations
In this study on forgiveness, Tim Hegg looks at Ephesians 4:32 as a key verse for understanding what it means to forgive. Hegg looks at how the Messiah Yeshua has forgiven the elect as a model for how believers are likewise to forgive others. This 20 page paper was the
In this look at Acts, Tim Hegg investigates the theory that the Jerusalem Council concluded that the Torah was not for Gentiles. Many within believing circles today teach that this council was establishing the Noachide laws for the Gentiles. Hegg has written on this specific teaching elsewhere. In this article, Hegg
This is a study of 1Cor 9:19–23, and focuses and the phrase "all things to all men." Tim Hegg shows that Paul did not mean that he gave up Torah observance in order to win the Gentiles. Rather, Hegg shows that Paul lived a Torah obedient life among both Jews and
For those coming to the rich blessing of Torah, the festivals are a central part. But Christianity teaches these festivals are done away with. Is there validity to these claims? In this article, Tim Hegg goes to the Scripture to investigate if the festivals are for today.
This article is primarily a critical review of “One Law and the Messianic Gentile,” Messiah Journal 101(Aug 2009), 46–70, published by First Fruits of Zion. Tim Hegg investigates the Divine Invitation teaching put forth by FFOZ. Divine Invitation teaches that the Torah is for the Jewish people. Gentiles, on the
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the teaching by some leaders that the Bible is not enough. Some teachers are claiming we need rabbinic literature such as the Mishnah and Talmuds to truly live a life of holiness. However, this teaching is a direct assault on the 66 books
In this short 4 page article, Rob Vanhoff looks at the progression of Bible translations up into the modern era, pointing out tools we now have for digging deeper into the biblical text. He also mentions computer programs that allow Bible scholars a vast amount of tools for in-depth study
Within the Messianic movement there are those who are teaching Bilateral Ecclesiology. This theology teaches that God has one people separated into two groups. The Jewish believers should be in their own groups keeping Torah, and the Gentiles should be in the Church. As a result, many have found themselves
This article shows the manner in which Deuteronomy is structured after the common Suzerain-Vassal treaties of the Ancient Near East. Showing the historical background of the covenant blessings and curses can help us understand Paul’s point in Galatians 3:10–14. This article gives insight into how Yeshua “redeemed us from the curse
In this lengthy 51 page study, Tim Hegg looks at the concept of "evangelism" in the Gospels. This study looks at what believers are commissioned to do as laborers in the harvest of nations (Matt 9:38; Luke 10:2).
This paper, delivered at the NW Regional ETS Meeting in 1996, explores the possibility that "Law" (nomos in the Greek) may include the so-called "Oral Torah" within the scope of its meaning when used in the Apostolic Scriptures (NT). Examples of adherence to the Oral Torah both by Yeshua and
The chronology of the crucifixion is hotly debated every year. In this article, Tim Hegg lays out a chronology that makes the Synoptic Gospels line up with the Gospel of John. Previously, scholars have seen either John or the Synoptics to be wrong. As a result, this has brought the
In the 1st Century CE, circumcision was understood as a sign of being Jewish. But what was the original intent in giving this sign to Abraham? This paper looks at the biblical text, seeking answers to that question.
In this article, Rob Vanhoff investigates circumcision among various groups within the first century. Vanhoff begins by looking at Acts 15 and the wording used therein. Vanhoff clearly shows that circumcision can not be simply understood as a physical act. Rather, each group carried their own traditions and expectations when
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at 1 Thess. 4:13-18 in order to investigate the phrase "comfort one another with these words." What does this mean for believers, and how should they view this command?
What has become very clear to me in recent days is that many leaders in the Messianic movement have never really grasped the difference between a Torah Community and a Christian Congregation. In other words, one of the reasons that the current Messianic movement so much resembles the Christian Church
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the various ways the omer was counted in the first century. What is more, Hegg suggests a specific counting Yeshua held to. In conclusion, Hegg contends that followers of Yeshua should adopt the counting of their Master.
Understanding the form of the literature in which the sacred text is written is vitally important to interpreting it correctly. This paper shows the close affinities between the Royal Grant Treaties of the Ancient Near East and the covenant God made with Abraham. In conclusion, this then allows a clearer
In this short article, Rob Vanhoff looks at several examples of Paleo-Hebrew throughout the ANE. Vanhoff compares these various examples in order to show that the difference between the languages is not in the script. Therefore, the suggestion that letters written in Paleo-Hebrew have special hidden meaning is false. In
The mystery of Yeshua's divine nature is clearly taught as a reality in the Scriptures. This short article emphasizes a number of texts that point clearly to the eternal, divine nature of our Messiah, Yeshua. Though this doctrine is increasingly under attack in our times, we must affirm its truth based
Many who oppose believers keeping Torah turn to Mark 7:19 as proof that the food laws have been done away with, and thus indicating that the Torah has been abolished. In this verse, Yeshua declares all foods clean…or does He? In this article Tim Hegg shows that the Greek found
Often, believers who begin to follow the Torah do so because of one issue… the Sabbath. The joy and rich tradition of the Sabbath is a blessing to many believers. Yet, those who begin to keep this day might run into the same persistent question: "Didn't Yeshua break the Sabbath?"
Many in modern times believe the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) were written in Hebrew or Aramaic. Yet, the manuscript evidence points to Greek as the original language. In this fascinating article, Rob Vanhoff looks at John 3 for clues. Yeshua was an up and coming teacher, and Nicodemus was "the Teacher
Generally, the interpretation of this passage falls to one of two sides: one which understands the passage to teach that Yeshua descended to Hades or Hell during the time He was in the grave, and the other which denies that He descended during this period.
In this 11th chapter from Tim Hegg's book "Why We Keep Torah: Ten Persistent Questions", Tim Hegg looks at the Torah. Can we break the Torah into three categories? Namely, civil, ceremonial and moral laws? Hegg suggest the teaching that God has done away with the civil and ceremonial parts
Many people interpret Ephesians 2:14 as teaching that the Torah was done away with so that Jew and non-Jew could be "one new man" in Yeshua. Is this what Paul was teaching? This paper looks at the context, the grammar, and the words of the text in order to properly
This is a paper investigating the Noachide Laws as presented in the rabbinic literature. The paper shows that the Noachide Laws were never envisioned by the early rabbis as a means for Gentiles to obtain a place in the world to come. In conclusion, Tim Hegg shows that reading these
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the claim that the name "Easter" comes from the pagan goddess Ishtar. Hegg looks at the etymology of this word, and the history of this claim. In addition, Hegg looks at the oldest references we have of Easter being seen as pagan. Due
In this short article Rob Vanhoff looks at the different meanings people place on regularly used words and terms within religious circles and how readers think they should define these terms in their own minds. Vanhoff suggests we all slow down and define our terms before we assume everyone is
In this article, Rob Vanhoff assesses Rabbi Lichtenstein's view of the Law by translated passages for his own works, particularly his commentary on Rom 10:4. Vanhoff challenges Lichtenstein's views, showing that he has completely misinterpreted the verse and thereby misunderstood its true meaning.
Tim Hegg looks at Hebrew 11:1 and what "faith" is. This 2 page article is just a short look at faith and the message the author of Hebrews was conveying to the reader.
As the title suggests, Tim Hegg looks at Faithfulness in the Bible and gives some reflective thoughts on this subject. Hegg looks at faithfulness in the Tanach (Old Testament) and in the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) in order to reflect on this concept within the life of a believer.
Ex 19 begins: בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְָׂראֵל מֵאֶֶרץ מִצְרִָים בַּיּוֹם הֶַזּה בָּאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינָי , “In the third month of the going out of the children of Israel from the land of Egypt, on this day, they came to the wilderness of Sinai”. The text is emphatic in specifying בַּיּוֹם
Who would have thought that in our modern world of wireless technologies, satellite communications and space exploration that we would have to address the idea that the earth is flat? Unfortunately, this incredibly false teaching has penetrated the Messianic/Hebrew Roots Movements and is spreading rapidly, misleading many. In this brief
This article looks at the four cups that are traditionally in the Passover Seder and outlines the significance of each cup and how this might relate to our belief in Yeshua.
This paper looks at Genesis 18:22 and specifically the scribal notes for this text. Tim Hegg investigates the noted change within the text, suggesting the scribes never actually made a change. In conclusion, Hegg proposes the text is original, and the note from the scribes comes from debates between rabbis
This focused study looks at how Gentiles were received and operated in the 1st century temple. Furthermore, Hegg looks at Gentiles and the festival of Passover. He begins by investigating if Gentiles sacrificed in the temple. The focus then changes to ritual purity and if first century Judaisms considered non-Jews unclean. Finally,
Some have suggested that Yeshua is a lesser reality of YHVH and by so doing, give an "explanation" to the dual natures (divine and human) of the Messiah. This paper shows the fallacies in such thinking.
This focused study takes the reader through the means of grace God uses in the process of sanctification. Hegg looks at God's self-revelation, and His revelation through Scripture. Hegg then moves to communion with God through prayer and the means of strengthening of our faith, and also looks at the
In this short paper, Tim Hegg looks at dedication. During the time of Hanukkah, Hegg shows that the primary focus of the Festival is God's call upon His children not to assimilate into the world...
One of the messages that is impressed upon us each year as we celebrate Hanukkah is the call to persevere, to not give up when events and circumstances weigh heavy upon us. When we consider how our people must have felt as they suffered at the hands of the foreign
The hardening of Pharaoh’s heart has always been a difficult matter. First, and perhaps primarily, it appears out of character for God to harden a person’s heart in advance of giving the message. Moreover, this seems patently unfair. If God hardens the heart before giving the message, it is sure
On Yom Kippur, we are commanded to hear the sound of the shofar. What does this mean, and why would God command it? In this article, Tim Hegg looks at what it means to "hear" the sound of the shofar.
The Hebrew word “know” (yada’), which is a common root in the semitic languages, has a wide range of meanings depending upon the context in which the word is found. Like our word “know” in English, the Hebrew word can indicate mental knowledge, that is, that a person “understands” or
Where do the wicked go when they die? If you grew up in the Christian church, you have a simple answer… Hell! Many believe, however, that the answer is much bigger. For some, the idea that an all loving God could torment a soul for eternity is impossible. But what
This article looks at the significance of the hem of a garment within ancient culture. Tim Hegg shows that to "grasp" or "hold" the hem is to signify loyalty and submission to an agreement or covenant. With this established, Hegg then turns to 1 Samuel and what this might mean within
Are you hearing Messianic teachers say that we need to submit to "greater Israel" in our pursuit of Torah? Are you curious about the mystical method of interpreting the Bible, formed on the word Pardes (peshat, remez, d'rash, sod), and whether it is a correct way to explore the meaning
In this 10 page article Tim Hegg looks at the differences between historic Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism and what he terms Apostolic Judaism. Hegg defines Apostolic Judaism as those who accept Yeshua; accept the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament); and accept Torah as defined by Yeshua and His Apostles. Is there really
In this short three page article, Tim Hegg looks at Colossians 1:22-23 and Paul's choice of words when he says that we should not be "moved away from the hope of the gospel that you have heard…." What does this phrase mean? In this passage Paul tells us that our
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at how God saves the elect. Hegg begins by defining what sin is, then moves to man's purpose. This article also deals with what sin does between man and God, and how payment for sin can be made. Hegg also looks at different kinds
This paper looks at the language spoken in and around Israel in the first century, and the claims that Hebrew or Aramaic was the lingua franca of the time. The focus then shifts to the writing of the Synoptic Gospels and what has been titled the "Synoptic Problem." Caleb Hegg
In this article Tim Hegg looks at the seven requests as Yeshua prays just before being crucified, as recorded for us in John 17. The focus of this study is Yeshua's intercession for His own within this "high priestly" prayer. Hegg looks at this passage and shows its direct application
Questions about the Lord's Table always arise around Pesach (Passover), and for good reason. The very texts (both in the Gospels and in 1 Corinthians) which are read by Messianic Jews as we celebrate the Passover season are those which the Christian church reads before the Lord's Table. For Messianic
In our modern times, many believers are coming to the realization that they should be keeping Torah. Friends and family usually have a huge problem with such a claim. Those who oppose such a view would say believers are not obligated to keep the Torah. But are they right? In
In this article Caleb Hegg looks at the English name Jesus to ask if this name is derived from paganism as some have suggested.
The Church has prospered over the past 2000 years. Clearly God has blessed the Christian Church in many ways. For those in the Torah movement, a common question is often heard. "If the Torah isn't done away with, how did the Church miss it?" Or perhaps another way it is
This 7 page article is an expert from the fourth book of Tim Hegg's series, It Is Often Said. Tim Hegg looks at 1 Timothy 1:3-11 and what Paul means when he says the Law was given to condemn. Doesn't this prove that we don't have to keep Torah? Many would say,
In this 19 page paper, Caleb Hegg looks at the history and theology of the Hasidic movement. Hegg sheds light on the basic theological differences between the Messianic movement and the various Hasidic movements today. Are these two religious movements so far apart? Many within the Messianic movement say they
Nothing destroys a community faster than gossip. What does the Almighty think about "evil speech" (Lashon hara)? In this short article Tim Hegg looks at gossip and what it can do to relationship. Hegg looks at what the Bible says about evil speech.
As followers of Yeshua come to live by Torah, they are often accused of "legalism" by their Christian friends. But what is legalsim? Is following God's Torah legalism? In this short article, Tim Hegg looks at this concept and what it really means. Hegg looks at various definitions of this
Why has God Given us the Mo‘adim?
In this hard hitting article, Caleb Hegg looks at the claims by Jim Barfield of the Copper Scroll Project (CSP), and 119 Ministries. CSP has made some fantastic claims concerning the lost treasures of the temple, suggesting they could be found at Qumran. Hegg looks at the claims, along with
In part one of this series, Caleb Hegg wrote about some of the blatant errors put forward by 119 Ministries and the Copper Scroll project. Jim Barfield, president of the Copper Scroll Project responded to the first paper. In Part 2, Hegg address Barfield's response. Barfield attempts to downplay the
In this short article, Rob Vanhoff looks at the teaching of Lunar Sabbath. Those who advocate this theory suggest the Sabbath is reckoned by the moon. Therefore, the Sabbath does not fall on a Saturday, but rather changes according to the moon's cycle. Vanhoff shows that for such a theory
In this 7 page article, Tim Hegg looks at Mark 7:19b and the phrase that many Biblical translations have translated, "Thus declaring all foods clean." Hegg looks at the Greek syntax in this passage to understand why some of the major English translations have such different versions of the passage.
In this 9 page article, Tim Hegg undertakes a text critical investigation of the phrase, "in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit."
Matthew 5:17-20 gives to us the clear teaching of Yeshua Himself regarding the Torah. These verses are often referenced when discussing believers and the Torah. Are Torah pursuant believers missing something? Hegg looks at this passage line by line to gain a better understanding.
Tim Hegg looks at the Hebrew word "kafar" and what it means. Normally translated "to cover, conceal," by English translations when talking about God's dealing with our sin, Hegg shows evidence that this word should more rightly be translated to "wipe away." Hegg shows that the commonly held perspective, that
This article focuses on the festival of Passover. For believers in the Messiah Yeshua, it might seem obvious that Yeshua represents our Passover lamb. Tim Hegg focuses on our salvation through the Messiah Yeshua. And, therefore, our personal salvation story in the Passover festival...
Yeshua is 100% man. Of course! But when I go on to assert that He is also 100% God and preexisted the creation of the world, some will slam the brakes. “No way, man. Stop right there! We’re not polytheists!”
This article is the basis for Tim Hegg's audio teaching by the same name (Click Here to purchase). Tim Hegg explores what it means to have a Greek vs. Hebrew worldview. Hegg begins by looking at how Greek philosophy has shaped our western perspective. As a result, the texts of
This article begins with several pages describing the variants in the Greek manuscripts, pertaining to the number 666 in Rev 13:18. Some manuscripts have 616. The name of Nero Caesar in Hebrew most likely is what John is encrypting in the number. If taken from Greek, the number is 666.
In this article, Tim Hegg responds to an article entitled "One Law Movements: A Challenge to the Messianic Jewish Community." This article was written by Russ Resnik and Daniel Juster, who state that the Torah is not for Gentiles, but given to the Jewish people alone. Hegg goes to the
Those within the Messianic and Hebrew Roots movement are faced with an interesting suggestion. Within Judaism there is one written Torah, but there is also the "Oral Torah." Within the emerging Torah movement, many believers are suggesting the Oral Torah is actually divinely sanctioned. In this article, Rob Vanhoff looks
In this open letter, Tim Hegg responds to the accusation (made by the IAMCS in their recent position paper entitled “One Law, Two Sticks: A Critical Look at the Hebrew Roots Movement”) that he “equates Torah observance to the gospel itself,” a “gospel of obedience to the law.” Accompanying the
The day of Yom Kippur comes to us with the traditions of somber reflections and introspection. The divine injunction to “humble your soul” (Lev 23:27, 29, 32; Num 29:7) on this day teaches us that this appointed time, more than any of the other mo’edim, is a time to stop
In this transcript of an interview with Dr. Michael Brown, Paleo Hebrew is discussed. Many within the Hebrew Roots movement think that they can use Paleo Hebrew to find deeper meaning in the biblical text. Dr. Brown has his doctorate in Near Easter Languages, and discusses the script known as
What do we experience during Pesach as believers in Yeshua? Moreover, how do the multifaceted traditions of Passover instruct us?  In this article, Tim Hegg demonstrates how the traditions of Pesach provide our families the learning labs designed by God. In conclusion, many of the traditions celebrated at Pesach reinforce
Many believers in our modern time don't have a working understanding of the biblical languages. Because of this, many go to Strong's Numbers to guide them in their studies in order to find the meaning of a given Hebrew or Greek word. Yet, is this really what Strong's Numbers is
Hegg shows that the traditional perspective of the "days of awe" is not what is taught in the Bible itself, but that right-standing with God is a matter of His grace and not something the sinner can earn through what rabbinic Judaism considers "proper repentance." Hegg shows that true repentance
The Priestly Blessing or Aaronic Benediction: An Exposition of Numbers 6:22-27 including a discussion of the Tetragrammaton.
Jacob Franczak’s article entitled “The Five Solas: Sola Scriptura” (Messiah Journal #111, FFOZ) proposes to do away with these pillars of the Protestant Reformation beginning with the first of the five, “Sola Scriptura,” Latin for “The Scriptures Alone.” Unfortunately, Fanczak apparently has never studied the Reformers’ own definition of this doctrine,
In this short article Tim Hegg looks at Psalm 22:16. Some translations have "like a lion…" while other translations have "they pierced…" Why such a difference? Was this passage changed by Christians to fit their theology? Some within Orthodox Judaism say it was. Hegg looks at the Lxx and the
This paper seeks to understand that various customs surrounding the public reading of the Scriptures in the 1st Century Synagogue. Did the early Synagogue utilize the three year cycle of readings (triennial) or was the one year cycle (annual) already in place in the pre-destruction era? What about the haftarah
The wisdom of the Sages is displayed yet again in the tradition of reading Qohelet (Ecclesiastes) during the Festival of Sukkot. But it is not readily apparent why Qohelet was chosen for a festival that has rejoicing as its main theme! Many who read Qohelet are left with the impression
The Shabbat before Purim has traditionally been called Shabbat Zachor, or the “Sabbath of Remembering.” The additional Torah portion read on this Shabbat is Deuteronomy 25:17–19.
In this 9 page book review, Rob Vanhoff looks at Tent of David by Boaz Michael, FFOZ 2013. Vanhoff begins by presenting a short two page article named Slippery When All Wet (found on TR) to show how Michael uses terms without giving a definition. Vanhoff then goes on to look at some of
The Sabbath is an important part of Torah communities. But we are constantly having to defend its value. One text that is regularly brought up is Romans 14. Did Paul really indicate in this text that the Sabbath was no longer valid? This short paper explores the text to seek
There are those who claim that pronouncing the Sacred Name is not only good but necessary for proper worship. This paper exposes the premises of this position and calls for a biblical understanding of the Name and its use. This paper was eventually turned into a video teaching...
Against the backdrop of mankind's depravity, this short study notes the utter necessity of God's work in sanctifying sinners. The significance of this divine work is considered in light of how the Gospel is presented. Tim Hegg challenges the idea that once saved we can sit back and let God
God's gift during this season of Pesach (Passover) testifies to us throughout the whole year. First, it reminds us of the reality of Yeshua life, death, and resurrection. Next, the disciples needed to learn how this reality impacted their lives. Also, we too find instruction that remains valid and real
Maybe you've heard of the teaching that tries to connect the Hebrew particle Aleph-Tav (sign of the direct object) with the Alpha and Omega as symbolic of Yeshua (Rev 1:8; 21:6; 22:13). Now someone has even published the “Aleph-Tav Bible” in which they purport to note every use of the
The last day of Chag HaMatzot (Festival of Unleavened Bread) is designated in the Torah as a day of gathering (מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ, mikra qodesh). Also, it is a Shabbat. “You shall not do any laborious work” (Lev 23:8; Num 28:25). Until the return of our Messiah Yeshua, and the restored Temple
Shabbat HaGadol, or "The Great Sabbath," is the Sabbath immediately preceding the festival of Passover. It gained this title through rabbinic interpretation of the exodus events themselves. On this Shabbat, Exodus 12:21-51 is read, which recounts the Exodus narrative. In these notes Tim Hegg looks at the Exodus account in
In this short article, presented during the time of Hanukkah, Tim Hegg looks at what it means to be set apart...
In this article, Tim Hegg compares the festival of Hanukkah to the celebration of Christmas. These notes were presented for the Torah portion on Shabbat Hanukkah.
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the traditional readings for the week of Hanukkah. Hegg looks at Num. 7:18-29, but focuses on John 10:22-42. This article relates these passages to the festival of dedication. 
The Shabbat before the festival of Passover is known as Shabbat Parah, "Shabbat of the Heifer." This is because when the temple was standing, the largest pilgrimage festival was Passover. Those who traveled to Jerusalem for this celebration would often need to be purified from corpse defilement. This can only
This article looks at the traditional readings for the Shabbat before Passover. Tim Hegg teaches on the significance of this festival and the parallels to our risen Messiah.
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the festival of Sukkot. This study begins by examining some of the traditions associated with the festival, then focuses on the presence of Yeshua in this festival. As a result, Hegg highlights the living Torah in this festival.
Notes on the Shabbat immediately preceding Purim. This shabbat is referred to as Shabbat Zachor, "The Shabbat of Remembering", which is taken from the passage of Torah that is read on this Shabbat, Deut. 25:17-19. In this paper, Tim Hegg looks at the attack by the Amalekites on Israel, and
The Festival of Sukkot contains an enigma: is it prescribed in the Torah to be 7 days long or 8 days? The text in Lev 23 seems a bit ambiguous: (vv. 33-36)...
In this 25 page article, Tim Hegg looks at a 2008 issue of Kesher which focuses on Soteriology (the way in which God saves His elect). Within this article Hegg challenges the views from leading Messianic teachers on their understanding of  eternal salvation and relies upon the Bible itself to
Have you heard the argument that men who wear a kippa (yarmulke) are going contrary to Apostolic halachah? Here is an article that investigates the meaning of this often misunderstood text. In conclusion, Hegg suggests a different approach to this text.
Michael Rood claims that John 6:4 was added much later after the Gospel of John was written. As a result, Rood believes this scripture is, therefore, a forgery. Rood's motivation for this seems to be the desire to have a 70 week ministry of Yeshua as set forth in his
A short essay on the holiness of God, derived from the context of Exodus 15:11. This article focuses on believers getting a glimpse of His holiness and how it enables us to see how great our salvation is. As a result, we see the true price Yeshua our Messiah paid to purchased
A Response to the article, "Sola Scriptura" by Jacob Fronczak, Messiah Journal #111 (FFOZ, 2012)
This paper continues a debate between Tim Hegg and Nehemia Gordon concerning Matthew 23. This specific paper is a response to Gordon's rejoinder. In it Hegg clarifies several points, and suggests that Gordon has not been as upfront with his audience as he perhaps should be. Hegg focuses on the
Within Messianic and Hebrew Roots circles, the issue of the correct calendar comes up often. Many separate over days and times, and perhaps for some legitimate reasons. We know calendar issues were debated in the first century as well. The Qumran sect may have had a solar calendar at one
Tim Hegg looks at the claim that the Sprit is now available to believers in new ways that discount the "Old Covenant." Many claim that the new covenant that all believers take part in through the blood of the Messiah Yeshua, is Spiritual in nature. This view holds that the
In this 6 part series (all 6 parts are contained in this PDF), Rob Vanhoff takes a detailed look at a section of the Shema (Deut. 6:4-7). Vanhoff looks at the history of this Scriptural passage which became part of the Synagogue liturgy, giving insight into the rabbinic history and thought
In this study of Hebrews 9:15-17, Tim Hegg explores the word for "Covenant." Hegg critiques the idea that the author of Hebrews substituted "last will and testament" for "covenant." In conclusion, Hegg suggests that the author of Hebrews was well aware of the teaching of covenant in the Tanach and
Shavuot is the festival of first fruits. Because of this, harvest is a core theme in celebrating this festival. In this study, Tim Hegg looks at Matthew 28:18-20 and the concept of how we as believers in Yeshua are to be workers in the harvest of the nations, i.e., proclaiming
This study looks at the significance of the festival of Shavuot. Included is a look at the name "Shavuot" and its significance. Also, exploring the connection to Passover. Read More
Yeshua is called "Rabbi" in the Gospels. Is this anachronistic? Was the word used to identify teachers in the early 1st Century CE? And what of the prohibition in Matthew 23 about calling anyone a "Rabbi"? This paper, read at the Regional Evangelical Theological Society Meeting in 1992, is an
This paper is the basis for a DVD teaching by the same name (click here to view DVD). In this lengthy article, Tim Hegg looks at what the Scriptures teach regarding the role of women within Torah communities. Hegg begins by looking at God given roles as defined by the
In practical terms, how can our celebration of Rosh Chodesh reinforce the expectations of God's appointed times? Moreover, does the Bible direct us to do something during this time? Tim Hegg investigates Biblical passages relating to underlying assumptions about the celebration of Rosh Chodesh. In conclusion, he shows that the
This article by Tim Hegg looks at the chronology of counting the Omer. More specifically, Hegg looks at evidence from the text of the Torah to determine when the counting of the omer was to begin, thus determining the day upon which Shavuot would fall...
What is meant by זכרון in Lev 23:24? The word itself is formed on the verb זכר , “to remember,” and is usually translated a “memorial,” a “remembrance,” or a “reminder.” Thus, Yom Teruah is a day on which the shofar is to be blown, and the purpose of blowing the shofar
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at a teaching by D. Thomas Lancaster (FFOZ) in which he finds hidden meaning within Esther. Lancaster suggests that finding the hidden meaning in Esther 9:7-9 prophesied the execution of 10 Nazi criminals. Hegg looks at the method used, and the claims made and
In this short study, Tim Hegg looks at the freedom Israel gained from Egypt as a result of the exodus event. Hegg shows the freedom each individual believer has in Messiah through participation in His death, burial, and resurrection. This article focuses on the redemption from sin which the elect
This is a paper dealing with the technical issues of the Masoretic text and the scribal notes. These notes show certain words that are written in the text (ketiv) that the scribes say should be read differently. This is noted by the scribes by placing the word to be read
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the history of the Tashlich service. This is the traditional service performed during Rosh HaShanah. But where did it start?
Trembling at God’s word means recognizing that His word is not manageable. It comes to us in the power of the Spirit as an overwhelming call to submission, as something far bigger than we are. It displays the awesome heart of our King, Who has called all of us into
The Two House theory is quite prevalent in our modern time. Many within Torah Communities are being taught this theology without fully understanding the implications. This article address some of the more mainstream teachers that hold to this theology. Since this theory is widespread, there are many variations on this
Is there unity in Torah? Or did God give laws that separate His people? Have you heard things said like...
 Have you ever heard a Bible teacher say that the “et” (את) is a mysterious, untranslatable word that holds all sorts of hidden meanings? I have. And at one time I believed it because I didn’t have the proper framework for evaluating the claims I was hearing. In this short
This short article was written as a response to both the IAMCS Steering Committee and Daniel Juster of Tikkun Ministries International who have recently written public statements attacking One Torah teaching as being contrary to Scripture and promoting Replacement Theology.
Many believers today do not understand the signficance of the virgin birth. Far more than simply a fantastic story, the virginal conception of our Messiah Yeshua is foundational to our very salvation. In this article, Tim Hegg explores the doctrine of the virgin birth. Hegg shows that this theology is
During the time of Passover, we read the story of the last supper, the trial and crucifixion of our Lord. This story is not complete without the actions of Judas Iscariot. This man lived with our Master, ate with Him, learned from Him. Yet he betrayed Yeshua. What can we
We often hear people say that Yeshua "fulfilled" the Torah. By this they believe it means "He fulfilled it so we don't have to do it." Is this what Yeshua meant when He said that He had come to "fulfill" the Torah and the Prophets? This paper explores the meaning
In this paper, Tim Hegg looks at the Hebrew word Pesach (Passover). Does this word carry significance, and what does it tell us about how God redeemed His people?
Every year when the festival of Passover is approaching, people begin to ask what constitutes "leaven?" What should be cleaned out of the home? This short article looks at Rabbinical vs Biblical requirements for food during Passover...
In this short explanation of sanctification, Tim Hegg builds on the phrase "pursue peace." Hegg clearly shows that we can see a person's sanctification lived out in their life. Those who are "pure in heart" will have this show through their lives...
In this article, Tim Hegg challenges the view traditional rabbinic Judaism, that the Oral Torah goes back to Sinai. Hegg suggests a later date for works such as the Mishnah, showing them to be long after the first century. As a result, Hegg shows that reading these texts back into
In this short article, Tim Hegg looks at the label "One Law" as a title for a segment of the "Messianic movement" and a particular theological position. Viewing the theology that is put under the title "One Law," Hegg is able to define the core differences between various groups within the
In Torah Communities there is a great desire to recover what we have lost and jettison the things that "essentially differ" from what God desires. Christmas has such deep cultural roots in the Christian Church that it is difficult to objectively evaluate its origins and assess its true value. This
The titles we use may say one thing to us and another thing to others. This article explores some of the wrong turns those within Torah communities have made. As a result, the titles "Messianic" and "Hebrew Roots" might carry baggage we don't like. Caleb Hegg expresses some of his
In several articles, as well as in his book, The Hebrew Yeshua vs. the Greek Jesus, Nehemiah Gordon teaches on Matt. 23:3. Gordon teaches that the correct reading of Matthew 23:3 is found primarily in the reading of a single Hebrew manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew. This manuscript is
In his paper Tim Hegg challenges Nehemiah Gordon's conclusions, that he has discovered the ancient pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, יהוה. Gordon contends that a number of times the scribes of the Aleppo Codex mistakenly wrote the actual vowels of יהוה. They did this, according to Gordon, when ever the Tetragrammaton
Tim Hegg looks at the commandment of Tzitzit (Tassels) as prescribed by the Torah in Numbers 15:37ff, and investigates if this command applies to women. In our modern time, some teachers and ministries have taught that this command is only for men. The argument is put forward that tzitzit are
With the rise of Hasidic Judaism, we have seen the emergence of the "tzadik." This righteous figure leads his flock, enters the thrown room of God,  and presents his followers’ petitions to God. The Tzadik also intercedes for the sins of his people. This sounds awefully familiar! In this paper, Caleb
This article focuses on the validity and inerrancy of the Gospels. Tim Hegg poses this question: "How we know Yeshua if the Gospels are not inspired Scripture?" Hegg then turns to Scripture found within the Tanach to show that the figure found in the Gospels had already been prophesied. In conclusion,
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the festival of Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). The focus of this paper is to see how this festival is so rich in meaning for believers. As a result, Hegg shows this festival to be centered around Yeshua...
The Torah parashah chosen for reading on Yom Kippur contains the instructions for Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the commands given within the temple service. What does this tell us about Yeshua and His work on the cross? As a result, Hegg
At the very first, when God gave the Yom Kippur commandments to Moses, He declared: This shall be a permanent statute for you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall humble your souls and not do any work...
This paper deals with the three Torah texts which prohibit boiling a kid in its mother's milk, the textual issues that are involved in these three texts, and the rabbinic literature which deals with the separation of meat and milk, based entirely upon these three verses. Hegg shows that there